Modernization is the process of change in the sectors of the economy, politics and social systems. These changes reflect the movement of societies from a traditional stage to a more modern stage.
How does modernization happen?
Modernization occurs through:
1. Colonialism: this is an important reason for modernization. The Indian colonial master introduced the English language, which was the first sign of modernization.
2. Migration: this is also a reason for modernization. This can be especially illustrated by the migration of Europeans to the colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Aspects of modernization
The following points are the basics of modernization:
1. The modern way of life: This happens when the old way of life is transformed into a modern way. Example of replacing a mat with a dining table or replacing a jug with a water cooler.
2. Changes of residence: For the convenience of living, some people changed their residence from wooden shacks to houses made of bricks.
3. Media: communication through storytelling has been replaced by newspapers and the Internet.
4. Urbanization: Domestic migration to cities or urban areas from rural areas. Example: Just after the independence of Pakistan, 87% of the population lived in villages and 12% in cities. But currently 68% live in rural areas and 32% can be found in urban areas. This is one of the main characteristics of modernization.
5. Change of profession. At first, the economy was agrarian in nature, but in due course industrialization occurred. This is another main characteristic of modernization: the rapid industrialization of societies.
6. literacy and education: a situation in which the literacy rates of the population increase dramatically.
7. High per capita income: the significant increase in per capita income is important due to the greater purchasing power of people which, in turn, will drive significant economic growth.
Economics of modernization
The economic aspect of modernization can be derived from the following points:
1. Money: this occurs when the barter system has been replaced by paper money.
2. Wage system: this happens because in traditional societies wages were not connected to time, while in modern societies wages were related to time.
3. Communication system: communication is mandatory for economic development. because communication is important for economic, social and political functioning.
4. Technology and its application: Through modernization, technology applied in people’s daily life has replaced the old ways of doing things by manual / animal power.
5. Preservation of foodstuffs: Storing food and other products and distributing such items in a systematic way increases the consumption and production of foodstuffs.
Political modernization is seen as the result of economic development and social mobilization.
Political modernization contains three elements:
1. Validation of authority
2. Development of political participation
3. Structure differentiation
Characteristics of political modernization
The following are the most important characteristics of political modernization:
1. The influence of a single Authority increased: With the process of political modernization, the influence of a single authority and its agencies increased and became widespread.
2. Variation of functions: political modernization has brought a clear picture of the function of differentiation.
3. Final power rests with the people: political modernization can be observed with the transfer of final power to the people that occurred slowly and gradually.
4. Democratic values and principles become popular: As Nelson Mandela said: one man, one vote, and regular elections to clean up the political quagmire.
5. Secularization of politics: separation of religion and state.