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Surplus Semiconductor Equipment and Its Benefits

Semiconductor systems are actually electronic components that take advantage of the electronic properties of semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. With the invention of semiconductor devices, most vacuum tube applications have been superseded. The superseded semiconductor system uses solid state instead of gaseous or thermionic state in a high vacuum.

A semiconductor device is manufactured as a single discrete device or as integrated circuits. Integrated circuits contain from a few to a few million devices interconnected to a single semiconductor substrate. The reason semiconductor materials are used in the fabrication of most devices is that the behavior of a semiconductor can be easily controlled by the addition of impurities, also called doping. Conduction in a semiconductor occurs through free electrons, which are generally called charge carriers.

By using the doping technique, the number of free electrons within the semiconductor can be increased. After doping, when the semiconductor contains many free electrons, it is called n-type and when the semiconductor forms a number of integers, it is called p-type. A semiconductor material is typically doped under extremely controlled conditions in a manufacturing facility to control the location and concentration of the dopant. The junction where p-type and n-type semiconductors meet is called a pn junction.

Until now, silicone was a widely used material in the semiconductor industry. This is due to the low cost and simple use and useful temperature range that makes silicone the most preferred material in semiconductor systems. Previously, germanium was widely used, but after the invention of silicon, germanium was replaced as the thermal sensitivity of germanium material makes it less productive and useful. However, germanium is used alloyed with silicon, which is used in high-speed SiGe devices.

Gallium arsenide is also widely used primarily in high-speed devices, but due to material limitations, silicon is preferred by most manufacturers. The other materials that are widely used are silicon carbide and various other indium components like indium arsenide, indium antimonide and indium phosphide are also used in LEDs and solid state laser diodes. Selenium sulfide is now considered to be used in semiconductor systems for the manufacture of photovoltaic solar cells.

A list of surplus semiconductor equipment and devices includes Avalanche Diode, DIAC, Diode, Gunn Diode, IMPATT Diode, Laser Diode, Light Emitting Diode, Photocell, PIN Diode, Schottky Diode, Solar Cell, Tunnel Diode, VCSEL, VECSEL, Zener diode are two terminal devices. The three terminal devices include Bipolar Transistor, Darlington Transistor, Field Effect Transistor, GTO, IGBT, SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), SGCT (Gate Switched Thyristor), Thyristor, TRIAC, Unijunction Transistor. The four terminal devices include Hall effect sensor (magnetic field sensor), multi-terminal devices composed of charge coupled device (CCD), microprocessor, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM) and the list goes on.

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